Tone reduction: General

Muscle tone is the resting tension in a person’s muscles. A range of “normal” muscle tone exists. Tone is considered “abnormal” when it falls outside the range of normal or typical. Abnormal muscle tone occurs in all types of CP. Spasticity is defined as an abnormal...

Tone reduction: Oral medications

The goal of treatment with oral medications (those taken by mouth) is to achieve generalized tone reduction. There are several oral medications physicians may prescribe to reduce spasticity, including: BaclofenDiazepamDantrolene sodiumTizanidine These medications act...

Tone reduction: Phenol injection

Phenol is a medication delivered by injection. It was used as a treatment for spasticity for many decades before the advent of BoNT-A. Phenol is injected directly into the motor nerve,* causing a chemical reaction that prevents the nerve from sending messages to the...

Tone reduction: Intrathecal baclofen (ITB)

Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is an alternative method of administering the drug baclofen. (The other method is orally–by mouth.) The following is an explanation of each term: Intrathecal: “Intra” means “within,” and the “theca” is the sheath enclosing the spinal cord....

Tone reduction: Selective dorsal rhizotomy

Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is a common neurosurgical procedure performed in people with cerebral palsy (CP). It reduces spasticity by selectively cutting abnormal sensory nerve rootlets in the spinal cord. (Think of nerve roots like the roots of a tree, which...

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